Batala is the eighth largest city in the state of Punjab, India in terms of population after Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda, Mohali and Hoshiarpur. Batala ranks as the second-oldest city after Bathinda. It is a municipal corporation (since 3 March 2019) in Gurdaspur district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, India. It is located about 32 km from Gurdaspur, the headquarters of the district. It is also a Police District. Batala holds the status of the most populated town of the district with 31% of the total population of district. It is the biggest industrial town in the district. Batala is the centre of the Majha region of Punjab.

Batala is an important place for Sikh devotees. Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the founder of the Sikh religion was married here to Sulakhni, the daughter of Mul Chand Chauna in 1485.[2] Many temples and gurdwaras related to the guru’s marriage attract devotees from near and far. Every year celebrations are conducted on the anniversary of Guru Nanak’s marriage. The gurudwara name kandh sahib where every year guru nanak marriage anniversary held. This marriage festival called (ਬਾਬੇ ਨਾਨਕ ਦਾ ਵਿਆਹ) in Punjabi language. There is also a historical gurdwara Satkartarian sahib related to 6th guru of Sikhs Shri Hargobind ji.

Batala was once known as the Iron Bird of Asia as it produced the highest amount of C.I. Casting[clarify], agricultural and mechanical machinery. Batala is still one of the leading cities in Northern India in manufacturing of C.I Casting and mechanical machinery. It’s also an agricultural marketplace and industrial center. Cotton ginning, weaving, sugar refining, and rice milling are some of other industries taking place here.

1 History
2 Landmarks
2.1 Jal Mahal (Baradari)
2.2 Gurdwara Kandh Sahib
2.3 Kali Dwara Mandir
2.4 Sati Lakshmi Devi Smadh
3 Demographics
4 Economy
4.1 Minerals
5 Transport
5.1 Bus
5.2 Rail
5.3 Air
6 Hospitals, schools and colleges
7 Notable people
8 See also
9 References
10 External links
Further information: Punjab and Radcliffe Line
The city was founded in 1465 CE by Raja Ram Deo, a Bhati Rajput. Later, during the Mughal rule, Akbar gave it in jagir to his foster brother, Shamsher Khan. Batala was a very famous city of the Punjab region, just like Lahore, Jalandhar and other major cities in the 16th century, and it is 109 years older than Amritsar. The whole city was lying within a fort. It had 12 gates as entrances and exit. These gates are still known by their old names, e.g. Sheran Wala Gate, Khajuri Gate, Bhandari Gate, Ohri Gate, Thathiari Gate, Hathi Gate, Pahari Gate, Mori Gate, Kapoori Gate, Achli Gate etc. Some of them still survive although their condition is in need of attention. [3]

Other historic places in Batala are gurdwaras where Guru Nanak stayed during his lifetime. There are also numerous other gurdwaras of significant importance to Sikhs and therefore attract thousands of Sikhs from around the globe.

In British India, Batala was the headquarters of a tehsil in the Gurdaspur district of the Punjab Province. The allocation of the Gurdaspur district during the Partition of India was highly contested because it was in central Punjab and had roughly equal proportion of Muslim and non-Muslim populations. Viceroy Lord Wavell allocated three eastern tehsils of the district (Gurdaspur, Batala and Pathankot) to India, and one western teshil (Shakargarh) to Pakistan. However, it continued to be contested. The whole district was shown as part of Pakistan in the ‘notional partition line’ in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and the issue was referred to the Punjab Boundary Commission. The final partition line (‘Radcliffe Line’) eventually confirmed Wavell’s division of the district, with the result that Batala became part of India. For three days, 14–17 August 1947, Batala was regarded as part of Pakistan, then added to Indian territory.[4][5][6]

After the partition line was announced, many Muslims left Batala and went to Pakistan and many Hindus and Sikhs were settled here. Then Hindus and Sikhs settled there and Batala now has a Hindu majority which holds more than 56% of city’s total population with a large Sikh minority population at 38%.

Located in Gurdaspur district, 38 kilometres (24 mi) from Amritsar on the Kashmir Grand Trunk road. One of the older towns in the province of Lahore in earlier times, Batala is home to many monuments of religious and historic importance, such as Hazira Park, Barah Dari, Hakikat Samadh. These monuments are connected with Sikh history and the Mughal period. The city consists of several churches constructed during the British Raj.

Jal Mahal (Baradari)
The Jal Mahal and the palace of Maharaja Sher Singh were built by the Maharaja (CE 1780–1839). The palace is under the control of the authorities of the local Baring Union Christian College. The administrative offices of the college are housed in it. Jal Mahal is under the control of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Jal Mahal (Baradari) and the palace of Maharaja Sher Singh were connected through a tunnel. According to some senior citizens, Shamsher Khan Tank of Jal Mahal used to be filled with water through the tunnel, which was further connected to a long tunnel (canal) to the Beas, near Kahnuwan. The remnants of the tunnel can be seen near Baring Christian College.

Maharaja Sher Singh used to hold meetings of his courtiers in Jal Mahal. The water reservoir was built by Shamsher Khan while the beautiful Baradari in the centre of the tank was constructed by Maharaja Sher Singh. It has a square room in the centre of a pavilion with a passageway. The entry to the first floor is by a staircase with concave-shaped steps on the north-eastern canal. Jal Mahal has eight doors in the lower part of the building and four in the upper storey. The inner wall contained beautiful art glass carvings and wall paintings. However, major parts of the paintings have been erased or damaged. The roof of the pavilion has also fallen. The Municipal Council provided a tubewell to fill up the tank till the eighties. All sides of the reservoir were lined with Nanakshahi bricks. However, with the passage of time the brick lining has been destroyed. Nowadays, on one side of the tank is located a vridh ashram owned and managed by the Dainik Prarthana Sabha. There also exists Bhadr Kali Mandir and Shivala. The upper portion of Jal Mahal is in a dilapidated condition and the time is not far when this magnificent structure will pass into oblivion.